Millions of people breathe dangerous air as smoke from Canadian wildfires billows south over the United States

Millions of people breathe dangerous air as smoke from Canadian wildfires billows south over the United States

NEW YORK (AP) Smoke from Canadian wildfires has poured into the East Coast and Midwest of the United States Wednesday, blanketing both nations’ capitals in an unhealthy haze, grounding flights at major airports, postponing Major League Baseball games and prompting people to dig up the face masks of the pandemic era.

Canadian officials have asked other countries for more help fight more than 400 wildfires nationwide that have already displaced 20,000 people. Dangerous levels of air pollution spread across the New York metropolitan area, central New York state, and parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Huge tongues of unhealthy air extended as far north as North Carolina and Indiana, affecting millions.

I can taste the air, Dr. Ken Strumpf said in a Facebook post from Syracuse, New York, which was wrapped in a pall of amber. The smoke, he later said by phone, also made him a little dizzy.

The Air Quality Index, a United States Environmental Protection Agency metric for air pollution, has at times exceeded a staggering 400 in Syracuse, New York City, and Pennsylvania’s Lehigh Valley. A level of 50 or lower is considered good; anything above 300 is considered dangerous, when even healthy people are advised to reduce outdoor physical activity.

In Baltimore, Debbie Funk sported a blue surgical mask as she and husband, Jack Hughes, took their daily stroll around Fort McHenry, a national monument that overlooks the Patapsco River. The air hung thick over the water, darkening the horizon.

I went out this morning and it was like a cloud of smoke, Funk said.

Canadian officials say this is shaping up to be the nation’s worst fire season ever. It started early on drier than usual ground and accelerated very quickly, depleting firefighting resources across the country, firefighters and environmental officials said.

Smoke from fires in various parts of the country has reached the United States since last month, but has intensified with the recent fires in Quebec, where about 100 were deemed out of control on Wednesday which, ominously, was National Air Day cleaned in Canada.

The smoke was so thick in downtown Ottawa, Canada’s capital, that the office towers just across the Ottawa River were barely visible. In Toronto, Yili Ma said her hiking plans were canceled and she was forgoing restaurant patios, a beloved Canadian summer tradition.

I put the mask away for over a year and have now been wearing it since yesterday, the 31-year-old complained.

Quebec Premier François Legault said the province currently has the capacity to fight about 40 fires and the usual reinforcements from other provinces were strained by the conflagrations in Nova Scotia and elsewhere.

Jennifer Kamau, a spokeswoman for the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center, said more than 950 firefighters and other personnel had arrived from the United States, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, with more to come soon.

In Washington, White House Press Secretary Karine Jean-Pierre said President Joe Biden has sent more than 600 firefighters and equipment to Canada. His administration has reached out to some US governors and local officials to provide assistance, he said.

Northern Quebec’s largest city, Chibougamau, with a population of about 7,500, was evacuated on Tuesday, and Legault said the roughly 4,000 residents of the northern Cree town of Mistissini would likely have to leave on Wednesday. But later, Mistissini’s boss Michael Petawabano said his community remains safe and asked residents to wait for instructions from Cree officials.

Eastern Quebec had rain Wednesday, but Montreal-based Environment Canada meteorologist Simon Legault said no significant rain was expected for days in remote areas of central Quebec, where fires are most intense.

U.S. National Weather Service meteorologist Zach Taylor said the current weather pattern in the central and eastern United States is essentially funneling into smoke. Some rain should help clear some air in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic this weekend or early next week, though more complete relief will come from containing or extinguishing the wildfires, he said. said.

New York Governor Kathy Hochul said 1 million N95 masks will be available at state facilities. New York City beaches were closed and Mayor Eric Adams told residents to stay indoors as much as possible as smoke stained the horizon. The Bronx and Central Park zoos closed early and brought their animals inside. The popular Shakespeare in the Park show has been cancelled.

The Federal Aviation Administration suspended some flights to LaGuardia Airport and slowed planes to Newark Liberty and Philadelphia because smoke limited visibility. It also helped delay arrivals at Dulles International Airport outside Washington, where a thick haze shrouded the Washington Monument and forced the cancellation of outdoor tours.

Major League Baseball has postponed games in New York and Philadelphia, and even an indoor WNBA game in Brooklyn has been cancelled. On Broadway, Killing Eve star Jodie Comer had trouble breathing and left the matinee after 10 minutes; the show has restarted with a replacement, the show’s publicists said.

Schools in multiple states have canceled sports and other outdoor activities, moving recess indoors. Live horse racing was canceled Wednesday and Thursday at Delaware Park in Wilmington. Organizers of Global Running Day, a virtual 5K, advised attendees to adjust their plans based on air quality.

New Jersey closed state offices early, and some political rallies in venues from Manhattan to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania were moved indoors or postponed. Hollywood’s extraordinary writers have been pulled off the picket lines in the New York metropolitan area.

Smoking has exacerbated the health problems of people like Vicki Burnett, 67, who suffers from asthma and has had severe bouts of bronchitis.

After walking his dogs Wednesday morning in Farmington Hills, Michigan, Burnett said, I went in and started coughing and went back to bed.

However, she stressed that she was worried about Canadians, not just herself.

It’s a shame, and I have problems with it, but there should be help for them, she said.


Gillies reported from Toronto. Contributors were Associated Press reporters Randall Chase of Dover, Delaware; Michael Hill in Albany, New York; David Koenig in Dallas; Aamer Madhani in Washington; Brooke Schultz in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania; Mark Scolforo in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Lea Skene in Baltimore; Carolyn Thompson in Buffalo, New York; Ron Todt in Philadelphia; Corey Williams in West Bloomfield, Michigan; and Mark Kennedy, Jake Offenhartz, Karen Matthews and Julie Walker in New York.


This story corrected the attribution of Quebec rain forecast material to Montreal-based meteorologist Simon Legault of Environment Canada, not Quebec Premier François Legault.

#Millions #people #breathe #dangerous #air #smoke #Canadian #wildfires #billows #south #United #States

The oceans are under threat. What it means for investors.

The oceans are under threat.  What it means for investors.

The world’s oceans are under threat, risking trillions of dollars in revenue, warns a new report. But the dire situation is also an opportunity to invest in ocean climate solutions, such as offshore wind energy.

The study, by Citi Global Perspectives and Solutions (GPS), found that $4.3 trillion in revenue could be at risk today due to direct damage to the marine environment from things like fishing and habitat loss. Additionally, $27 trillion in revenue could be indirectly at risk from other ocean stressors, such as pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Pollution, especially plastics, is widely considered harmful to ocean biodiversity and ecosystems.

Ocean health is intrinsically linked to climate change, Ying Qin, global issues analyst at Citi Global Insights and lead author of the report, said in an interview. It’s not a niche theme or topic, it’s very connected to a lot of the emerging sustainability themes and trends, and there’s a lot of opportunities that maybe traditional investors aren’t aware of with regards to the ocean.

The analysis was based on 2021 revenue data from 48,000 public companies across all sectors, not just the maritime industries.

Ocean chemistry is changing, with acidification increasing at an unprecedented rate, Citi said. By the end of this century, the ocean is projected to be 150% more acidic than it is now based on normal emissions scenarios that pose a significant threat to marine life.

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While there are many risks from the threat of sea level rise and coastal habitat destruction to supply chain disruptions and pollution, there are also many opportunities in the ocean economy, the report said, including in emerging oceanic industries. offshore renewable energy and carbon capture and storage, or CCS for short.

Offshore wind capacity has grown steadily over the past decade, rising from 3 Gigawatts (GW) in 2010 to 34 GW in 2020. It is projected to reach 380 GW by 2030 and more than 2,000 GW by 2050. Shell (SHEL) and Equinor (EQNR) all invest in offshore wind.

As for CCS, the report notes that it is virtually impossible to achieve net zero without this technologyBarronCCS, the technology that traps carbon dioxide from industrial processes and permanently sequesters it in underground rock formations, has become a highly publicized response to the world’s need to curb greenhouse gas emissions quickly and curb global warming.

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Citi said one way CCS can be used is to store captured CO2 underground, which could be in deep salt formations, unminable coal beds, or depleted oil and gas fields. Norway is a leader in the CCS space and in 2021 launched a CCS plan dubbed Longships, after the Viking boats. The plan calls for capture, transport and storage under the seabed.

Earlier this month, Exxon Mobil (XOM) announced a deal to capture carbon from a Louisiana plant owned by steel company Nucor

his latest effort to decarbonise heavy industry.

The oceans are the world’s largest ecosystem: they cover 70% of the earth’s surface, are home to 80% of all life and produce 50% of the oxygen we breathe, according to the report. They are also one of the largest carbon sinks in the world, absorbing 30 percent of man-made carbon dioxide and capturing 90 percent of the heat generated by those emissions, Citi said.

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It’s hard to overstate the importance of a healthy ocean to our planet, society and the global economy, the authors said.

A 2015 report by the World Wildlife Fund said the ocean’s combined value is approximately $25 trillion, providing at least $2.5 trillion worth of goods and services each year.

Email Lauren Foster [email protected]

#oceans #threat #means #investors

This company wants to mine the ocean floor for EV metals. It’s good for the environment.

This company wants to mine the ocean floor for EV metals.  It's good for the environment.

As the demand for cars has increased over the decades, people have exploited the tar sands, shale deposits and the ocean floor to meet the growing need for gasoline. Now that the demand for electric vehicles is growing, people are thinking about exploiting the oceans for the metals used to power battery-powered cars.

It’s not as bad an idea as environmentalists might initially think.

The Metals Company (ticker: TMC) is developing a project in the Clarion Clipperton area, or CCZ. To imagine where it is, draw an imaginary line south from central Alaska and stop at the latitude through central Mexico.

The zone is classified as the world’s largest undeveloped nickel deposit, which is used in stainless steel, aerospace alloys and electric vehicle batteries.

It is not an ordinary resource. While normal mining operations involve the excavation of nickel-bearing ore that is crushed, concentrated, acid leached, and refined to extract the metal, the nickel in the CCZ is contained in nodules that contain far more nickel than rocks excavated on dry land, not to mention copper, aluminum and manganese.

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The nodules, which formed somewhat like pearls in an oyster over millions of years according to TMC, contain no toxic materials. Their processing leaves much less waste than onshore mining, mainly because the metal content is higher.

When production begins, TMC essentially sucks the nodules into a stationary vessel that holds approximately 30,000 tons of product. About once a week, a bulk carrier will bring the nodules ashore for processing.

The subsequent stages of processing are similar to those for other types of ore. The nodules are, essentially, fired in a kiln and then fused in an electric kiln to produce an intermediate product called a matte. Dull is the same product produced from other nickel ores and can be processed by traditional refineries.

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The TMC project is expected to start in late 2024 or early 2025, but the company needs an additional $150 million of capital to get it to production, says CFO Craig Shesky.

The company has spent approximately $300 million on the project over the past decade. Total projected capital costs could eventually reach $7 billion. Much of that money would be debt financing related to the project.

Picking the nodules seems like a good solution, but does it make sense? It seems from a cost point of view. TMC believes it will have the second lowest cost on the planet, after Russia’s Norilsk Nickel.

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Nickel ore typically contains other metals, which is a huge boon for Norilsk, a company whose operating profit margins are above 50%. Counting the value of those metals and including all the cash costs of running a mining operation, the expenses of mining, processing, transportation and sales cost the Russian company about negative $15 to produce a pound of nickel which now sells for about $10.

The comparable figure for TMC, known as the cash cost of C1 nickel, should be minus $2.40 a pound. Both companies get their nickel for less than zero, after taking into consideration the value of those other metals.

The other thing to consider is the environmental effects of operating TMCs. Shesky says his company’s process has far less impact than land-based mining, using less energy and disrupting fewer forest and animal life, disturbing a very small portion of the ocean floor.

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In any case, the environmental impact of nickel mining should be weighed against the effects of oil and coal mining, given that nickel is a critical component of many electric vehicle batteries. Greater use of electric vehicles should allow humans to mine and burn fewer fossil fuels.

Metal mining is a smaller-scale operation compared to oil drilling and coal mining. The TMC project in the CCZ contains approximately 16 million tons of nickel. The world produced about 3.3 million tons in 2022. For context, the world produces about 4 billion tons of crude oil annually, and about 1.3 billion tons comes from offshore oil drilling.

Metals and batteries are not consumed like oil, so much less is needed for battery-powered transport. Batteries need to be recharged, often by power plants that burn coal or natural gas, but about 40% of electricity generation in the United States does not use fossil fuels.

And while mining has its environmental impacts, so does oil production. Apart from oil, the world mined about 8 billion tons of coal in 2022. Production of lithium, nickel, cobalt, aluminum and copper was about 100 million tons in 2022, less than 1% of total oil and coal.

Low cost and low impact make TMC’s design look like a winner, but the title is badly beaten. The shares are down about 53% in the last 12 months while the

S&P 500


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Nasdaq Composite

increased by about 3% and 9% respectively.

The company is new and in need of raising capital, with a new idea and no comparable deals to look to investors. Not a great recipe in this market.

Wall Street isn’t really helping either. Only two analysts cover the stock, according to Bloomberg. Both shares in Hold rate and the average price target is $3, while the stock traded around 70 cents Wednesday morning.

Email Al Root at [email protected]

#company #ocean #floor #metals #good #environment

The amount of warming triggering carbon dioxide in the air reaches a new peak, growing at a near-record pace

The amount of warming triggering carbon dioxide in the air reaches a new peak, growing at a near-record pace

The cause of global warming it shows no signs of slowing down as heat-trapping carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere rose to record highs in its annual spring peak, leaping at one of the fastest rates on record, officials announced Monday.

Carbon dioxide levels in the air are now at their highest in over 4 million years due to the burning of oil, coal and gas. The last time air had such amounts was during a less hospitable greenhouse on Earth before human civilization took root, scientists said.

The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration has announced that the level of carbon dioxide measured in Hawaii in May averaged 424 parts per million.. That’s 3 parts per million higher than the May average of last year and 51% higher than pre-industrial levels of 280ppm. It’s one of the largest May-to-May annual increases on record in carbon dioxide levels, trailing only 2016 and 2019, which had jumps of 3.7 and 3.4 parts per million.

For me as an atmospheric scientist, this trend is very concerning, said Arlyn Andrews, leader of NOAA’s greenhouse gas monitoring group. Not only is CO2 continuing to rise despite efforts to start cutting emissions, but it’s rising faster than it was 10 or 20 years ago.

Emissions used to be rising by perhaps 1 part per million a year, but now they’re rising at double or even triple the rate, depending on whether or not there is an El Nino, Andrews said.

The relentless rise in atmospheric CO2 is incredibly worrying if not entirely predictable, said Brown University climate scientist Kim Cobb, who was not part of the research.

Carbon dioxide levels are rising so that each year is higher than the last. However, there is a seasonal cycle with carbon dioxide so that it reaches its maximum saturation point in May. That’s because two-thirds of the globes are in the Northern Hemisphere and plants suck in carbon dioxide from the air, so during late spring and summer carbon dioxide levels drop until they start to rise again in November, he said Andrews.

Carbon dioxide levels rise the most during El Nino climate cycles because it is driest in the Northern Hemisphere. An El Nino is brewing. That 3.0 increase could be a sign of an El Nino bump, she said.

There are two main ways to monitor greenhouse gases. One is to monitor what comes out of smokestacks and sewage pipes, but about half is absorbed by oceans and land, Andrews said.

The other way is to measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. NOAA and partner agencies measure worldwide. Hawaii has the longest history of direct measurements and is home to the Scripps Institution of Oceanographys Keeling Curve, which has been tracking carbon in the air since 1958, when the May reading peaked at 317.5. Emissions have increased by about 33% since then.

Current emissions will linger in the atmosphere for thousands of years and continue to trap heat energy near the Earth’s surface for thousands of years, Andrews said.

Because of that, we’re still dealing with the CO2 in the atmosphere that was emitted in the first half of the 20th century, University of Oklahoma meteorology professor Jason Furtado said in an email, who was not part of of monitoring teams. This is why we need to see emissions DECREASE to have a chance to reverse climate change. And even if/when we reverse the rate of CO2 emissions, it will take some time for the climate system to respond.

NOAA had a complication in its reading this year.

NOAA and Scripps Institution have two distinct monitors that have slightly different measurements. Scripps measured 423.8 parts per million and is often slightly lower than NOAA. Both have been at the remote Mauna Loa volcano for decades, but last November’s eruption cut the power to the NOAA monitor and hasn’t been able to use it since. NOAA established another at Mauna Kea volcano, 21 miles away.

Scripps got its Mauna Loa site up and running and put one on Mauna Kea and their data shows Mauna Kea is an accurate substation for Mauna Loa, Andrews said.

Many activists and scientists advocate a return to levels of 350 parts per million.

CO2 is now higher than ever in the last 4 to 4.5 million years, when the atmosphere was about 7 degrees Fahrenheit (3.9 degrees Celsius) warmer and sea levels were 5 to 25 meters (16 to 80 feet) ( 16 to 82 feet) taller, Andrews said.

Temperatures were higher with a similar amount of carbon dioxide in the air because carbon dioxide traps heat for so long, and millions of years ago the buildup of carbon dioxide was much more gradual, allowing heat to build up and the ice to melt to raise seas, scientists said.

We are absolutely at levels never seen in human civilization, Furtado said. Humans are conducting a massive carbon-burning experiment on Earth’s climate system, and the results aren’t proving to be impressive for many people on this planet.


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The Associated Press’s climate and environmental coverage receives support from several private foundations. Learn more about AP’s climate initiative here. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

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UN climate chief calls phasing out fossil fuels key to curbing warming, but may not be on talks agenda

UN climate chief calls phasing out fossil fuels key to curbing warming, but may not be on talks agenda

The world needs to phase out fossil fuels if it is to curb global warmingthe UN climate chief said in an interview with the Associated Press. But he said the idea may not enter the agenda of decisive international climate negotiations this fall, stumbled upon an oil haven.

A phase-out of heat-trapping fossil fuels is something that is at the top of every discussion or most of the discussions going on, said United Nations Executive Secretary for Climate Simon Stiell. It is an issue that has global attention. We will see how this translates into an agenda item and an outcome (climate talks).

Stiell told the AP he couldn’t quite promise he would get a place on the agenda at the climate talks, called COP28, in Dubai later this year.

That agenda decision rests with the negotiating chair, Stiell said. He is the head of the Abu Dhabi state oil company, Sultan al-Jaber.

Host nation UAE’s decision to appoint al-Jaber to head climate conference has sparked fierce opposition by lawmakers in Europe and the United States, as well as by environmental advocates. UAE officials have said they want to change the game results in the climate talks and notes that al-Jaber also runs a large renewable energy company.

At last year’s climate talks, a proposal by India to phase out all fossil fuels, backed by the United States and many European nations, was never on the agenda. What is being discussed is decided by the president of the COP, who last year was the foreign minister of Egypt, a nation that exports natural gas.

When asked if Egypt’s leaders had kept the concept off the agenda, Stiell, speaking via Zoom from Bonn, Germany, where preliminary talks begin on Monday, said he could not comment except to say he is within their jurisdiction.

An engineer turned government official and diplomat, Stiell walked a fine line between talking about the importance of phasing out fossil fuels and supporting the United Nations process that mandated oil and natural gas exporting countries to negotiate on global warming for two consecutive years.

According to scientists monitoring emissions at the Global Carbon Project, about 94 percent of human industrial heat-trapping carbon dioxide activity put into the air last year came from the burning of coal, oil and natural gas. Al-Jabers company has the capacity to produce 2 million barrels of oil and 7 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day and said he plans to increase that drilling to 5 million barrels per day by 2027.

Phasing fossil fuels off the agenda this year depends on conference chairman al-Jaber and whether there is enough pressure from other nations, Stiell said.

What better place to discuss…than in a region where fossil fuels are at the heart of their economy? Stiell asked.

But the issue of phasing out coal, oil and natural gas is so central to Stiell that he brought it up four times in Saturday’s half-hour interview. You said the real problem is doing something, not putting it on the agenda.

In public appearances, al-Jaber has emphasized that he is focused on phasing out fossil fuel emissionsnot necessarily the fuels themselves, promoting carbon capture and removal of the pollutant from the air.

Stiell rejected the idea that carbon removal could be a short-term solution.

Right now, in this critical decade of action to achieve those deep reductions, science tells us it can only be achieved through reduced use, significantly reduced use, of all fossil fuels, Stiell said in the interview.

Stiell defended consecutive years of ongoing climate negotiations by fossil-fuel exporting nations as the wishes of the parties or countries involved.

This year will be pivotal as it is the first global inventory to see where the world stands in its efforts to reduce carbon emissions. To reach the Paris Agreement goal of limiting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial times, greenhouse gas pollution needs to be halved by 2030, he said.

We know we are a long way from where we need to be, Stiell said.

This year’s inventory sets out a new round of pledges for even tougher emissions reductions by telling nations the stark truth about how bad the situation is, Stiell said. The problem hasn’t been the nations who know how bad it is, he said.

Its lack of implementation, said Stiell. I don’t think it’s lack of knowledge. There has been report after report after report all saying the same thing, all with increasing urgency.

After less than a year on the job, but years before as a national negotiator, Stiell said he was beyond frustration. What drives me is the desire to make a difference.


Frank Jordans contributed from Berlin.


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The Associated Press’s climate and environmental coverage receives support from several private foundations. Learn more about AP’s climate initiative here. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

#climate #chief #calls #phasing #fossil #fuels #key #curbing #warming #talks #agenda

Researchers link the death in the gene-editing study to a virus used to deliver the treatment, not CRISPR

Researchers link the death in the gene-editing study to a virus used to deliver the treatment, not CRISPR

The only volunteer in a gene-editing study targeting a rare form of Duchenne muscular dystrophy likely died after having a reaction to the virus that delivered the therapy into his body, researchers concluded in an initial study.

Terry Horgan, 27, of Montour Falls, New York, died last year during one of the first tests of a gene-editing treatment designed for a person. Some scientists have wondered whether the gene-editing tool CRISPR played a role in his death. The tool has transformed genetic research, sparked the development of dozens of experimental drugs and won its inventors the Nobel Prize in 2020.

But researchers said the virus used to deliver the treatment into the body because it usually doesn’t make people sick combined with its condition triggered the problems that ultimately killed it.

Horgan appears to have had a more severe immune reaction than others who received similar or slightly higher doses of the virus, the authors wrote in the study, which has not yet been peer-reviewed.

Horgan was enrolled in an early stage safety study approved by the Food and Drug Administration. He was sponsored by Cure Rare Disease, a Connecticut-based non-profit organization founded by his brother Rich, to try to save him from the muscle-wasting disease caused by a mutation in the gene needed to make a protein called dystrophin.

In a statement, Rich Horgan thanked the research team led by the University of Massachusetts Chan Medical School and Yale University for a thorough and comprehensive investigation that provided valuable insights. He added, “On a personal note, this study is another important step in honoring Terry’s legacy and his commitment, as well as our entire family, to the rare disease community.

The therapy Horgan got aimed to use CRISPR to boost a form of the protein dystrophin. The process began with suppressing Horgan’s immune system to prepare her body for the therapy, which was administered intravenously with a high dose of what’s known as an adeno-associated viral vector, or AAV, according to Cure Rare disease..

But Horgan soon started having problems, going into cardiac arrest six days after treatment and died two days later of organ failure and brain damage. Due to the timing of the symptoms and the fact that the researchers were able to find very little gene-editing enzyme in his body, they concluded that the therapy had not yet been activated.

This isn’t the first time viral vectors have been implicated in a gene therapy death. In a major setback for the field, 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger died in 1999 during a study aimed at battling his rare metabolic disease. Scientists later learned that his immune system overreacted to the virus used to deliver the treatment. The virus used in the Horgans trial is considered to be safer but it is not without its problems.

People have tried to make carriers safer, but they still remain a challenge, said Arthur Caplan, a medical ethicist at New York University who was not involved in the study but has been following the case closely. We really don’t understand why some people get into trouble and others don’t. We don’t know if it’s their underlying disease, some comorbidity, or some weird immunology.

Rich Horgan said they plan to submit the study to a peer-reviewed journal. Meanwhile, Cure Rare Disease said it will use alternative viruses for the other treatments it is looking to develop.

Dr. Terence Flotte, dean of UMass medical school and senior author of the study, said he hoped it would lead to more research on how to identify subsets of patients who may be prone to severe and unexpected reactions like this one.


The Associated Press’s health and science department receives support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institutes Science and Educational Media Group. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

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