Global symmetry was found to be incompletely necessary for the protection of topological boundary states

Global symmetry was found to be incompletely necessary for the protection of topological boundary states

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Schematic illustration classifying perturbations into the symmetry-protected topological phase (SPT phase). The overlaid region surrounded by red, gray, and green lines represents a symmetry-protected topological phase with topological invariants and corresponding topological boundary states. The gray line is a set of perturbations which influence the boundary states but do not break the topological invariant of the overall system. The red and green line areas show boundary states protected by their associated sub-symmetry. The illustrated example shows two sets of perturbations which satisfy the sub-symmetry but destroy the topological invariant of the overall system. In this case, subsymmetry protects the boundary states. Credits: Domenico Bongiovanni and co-authors

An international team led by researchers from Nankai University in China and the University of Zagreb in Croatia, together with the team from the Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS) in Canada, led by Roberto Morandotti, has taken an important step forward in the study of phase topology. Their results were recently published in Physics of nature.

In the last decade, topological photonics has attracted increasing attention due to the unique prospects of achieving light manipulation with high performance in terms of robustness and stability.

Breakthroughs in topological photonics have paved the way for the development of a new generation of photonic devices, such as topological lasers and cavities, characterized by topologically protected states that are immune to disturbances and defects. The concept of topology in physics is inherited from mathematics, where topology is used to study the geometric properties of an object related to quantities that are conserved under continuous deformation.

Two objects are topologically identical when the surface of one can be continuously deformed into that of the other and vice versa, for example, a coffee cup and a torus are topologically equivalent. In physics, the concept of topology is employed to describe the characteristics of the energy band, leading to the prediction of new topological states of matter and various topological materials.

The different topological phases (trivial and non-trivial) are distinguished by suitably introducing quantized topological invariants, which allow establishing a link between the mass properties and the emergence of the characteristic at the boundary of these materials, known as mass-boundary correspondence. In this regard, the most distinctive feature of a non-trivial topology is the existence of robust topological boundary states protected by specific spatial and/or intrinsic symmetries.

In general, in symmetry-protected topological phase (SPT phase) systems, it is believed that the close relationship between topological boundary states, topological invariants and one or more overall symmetries is indispensable for maintaining topological protection against perturbations.

Consequently, both topological invariants and topological boundary states are irreparably affected by any bias that breaks the underlying symmetry. In this work, the international research team challenged this traditional common belief, thereby broadening the understanding of SPT boundary states. They found that even if the system no longer has quantized topological invariants and some types of global symmetry, topological boundary states can still exist in the corresponding subspaces, protected by so-called sub-symmetries.

“Our discovery challenges the common thinking of the symmetry-protected topological phase in topology and renews the correspondence between topological invariants and boundary states,” said Domenico Bongiovanni, a principal investigator, postdoctoral researcher at INRS-EMT. “Our idea has the potential to explain the topological origin of many unconventional states and can find application in different physical platforms and systems.”

By introducing and exploring the concept of sub-symmetry, the researchers found that global symmetry in the traditional sense is not entirely necessary for the protection of topological boundary states. In this regard, topological boundary states are preserved as long as the symmetries of specific subspaces are satisfied, even when the overall topological invariants no longer exist.

The research team intelligently designed and fabricated photon lattice structures using a cw laser writing technique to meet the conditions of different subspace symmetries. Experiments demonstrated a proof of concept with two most typical topological lattices: one-dimensional SSH and two-dimensional Kagome lattices.

Furthermore, the team innovatively introduced the concept of long-range coupling symmetry into the Kagome lattice model, which resolves current controversies on the existence and topological protection of higher-order topological states in the Kagome lattice.

This study not only challenges the traditional understanding of symmetry-protected topological states, but also provides new ideas for the research and application of topological states in different physical contexts. This impact of this work is expected to further promote the development of topological photonics and its cutting-edge interdisciplinary fields, as well as the research and development of a new generation of topological photonic devices based on sub-symmetry protected boundary states.

More information:
Ziteng Wang et al, Undersymmetry Protected Topological States, Physics of nature (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41567-023-02011-9

About the magazine:
Physics of nature

Provided by Institut national de la recherche scientifique – INRS

#Global #symmetry #incompletely #protection #topological #boundary #states

The oceans are under threat. What it means for investors.

The oceans are under threat.  What it means for investors.

The world’s oceans are under threat, risking trillions of dollars in revenue, warns a new report. But the dire situation is also an opportunity to invest in ocean climate solutions, such as offshore wind energy.

The study, by Citi Global Perspectives and Solutions (GPS), found that $4.3 trillion in revenue could be at risk today due to direct damage to the marine environment from things like fishing and habitat loss. Additionally, $27 trillion in revenue could be indirectly at risk from other ocean stressors, such as pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Pollution, especially plastics, is widely considered harmful to ocean biodiversity and ecosystems.

Ocean health is intrinsically linked to climate change, Ying Qin, global issues analyst at Citi Global Insights and lead author of the report, said in an interview. It’s not a niche theme or topic, it’s very connected to a lot of the emerging sustainability themes and trends, and there’s a lot of opportunities that maybe traditional investors aren’t aware of with regards to the ocean.

The analysis was based on 2021 revenue data from 48,000 public companies across all sectors, not just the maritime industries.

Ocean chemistry is changing, with acidification increasing at an unprecedented rate, Citi said. By the end of this century, the ocean is projected to be 150% more acidic than it is now based on normal emissions scenarios that pose a significant threat to marine life.

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While there are many risks from the threat of sea level rise and coastal habitat destruction to supply chain disruptions and pollution, there are also many opportunities in the ocean economy, the report said, including in emerging oceanic industries. offshore renewable energy and carbon capture and storage, or CCS for short.

Offshore wind capacity has grown steadily over the past decade, rising from 3 Gigawatts (GW) in 2010 to 34 GW in 2020. It is projected to reach 380 GW by 2030 and more than 2,000 GW by 2050. Shell (SHEL) and Equinor (EQNR) all invest in offshore wind.

As for CCS, the report notes that it is virtually impossible to achieve net zero without this technologyBarronCCS, the technology that traps carbon dioxide from industrial processes and permanently sequesters it in underground rock formations, has become a highly publicized response to the world’s need to curb greenhouse gas emissions quickly and curb global warming.

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Citi said one way CCS can be used is to store captured CO2 underground, which could be in deep salt formations, unminable coal beds, or depleted oil and gas fields. Norway is a leader in the CCS space and in 2021 launched a CCS plan dubbed Longships, after the Viking boats. The plan calls for capture, transport and storage under the seabed.

Earlier this month, Exxon Mobil (XOM) announced a deal to capture carbon from a Louisiana plant owned by steel company Nucor

his latest effort to decarbonise heavy industry.

The oceans are the world’s largest ecosystem: they cover 70% of the earth’s surface, are home to 80% of all life and produce 50% of the oxygen we breathe, according to the report. They are also one of the largest carbon sinks in the world, absorbing 30 percent of man-made carbon dioxide and capturing 90 percent of the heat generated by those emissions, Citi said.

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It’s hard to overstate the importance of a healthy ocean to our planet, society and the global economy, the authors said.

A 2015 report by the World Wildlife Fund said the ocean’s combined value is approximately $25 trillion, providing at least $2.5 trillion worth of goods and services each year.

Email Lauren Foster [email protected]

#oceans #threat #means #investors

This week’s air quality gives the United States a glimpse into global air pollution

This week's air quality gives the United States a glimpse into global air pollution

The dangerous haze that hung over parts of the Northeast and Midwest Wednesday morning was highly unusual for the United States. For many people around the world, that would be somewhat normal.

Cities in Asia, Africa and Latin America have been so polluted for so long that air quality readings like those expected on Wednesday in parts of New York State, which are expected to pose a risk to people with respiratory problems, do not would be seen as a particular cause for alarm.

Maybe foreigners can feel it, but for me, it’s just the ordinary air I breathe every day, said Paiboon Kaewklangrong, a taxi driver in Bangkok, on Wednesday. Polluted, hot, dusty. But it is what it is.

In a prepandemic study, the World Health Organization found that 99% of the world’s population lived in places that didn’t meet its guidelines for healthy air quality.

Bad air can be dangerous, especially if you’ve been breathing it your whole life. Short-term effects include coughing, congestion, and inflammation. Long-term exposure can damage the liver and brain and increase the risk of blood clots that can lead to heart attacks.

An added risk with smoke from wildfires is that the particulate matter they produce, known as PM, can mix with emissions from cars, factories and stoves in urban areas, said Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, an air quality expert at the National University of Singapore.

It is therefore reasonable to assume that the PM in the smoke haze is more toxic than usual urban PM, he said.

WHO estimates that the effects of outdoor and household air pollution are associated with approximately 6.7 million annual deaths worldwide, mostly in low- and middle-income countries.

South Asia has nine of the world’s 10 cities with the worst air and persistently dangerous pollution that causes about two million premature deaths a year, the World Bank said in a recent report. That pollution is partly a function of emissions from vehicles and heavy industry, but also from brick kilns, burning fields and other sources. People from poor households, who spend most of their lives outdoors and cannot afford air filters, tend to face the greatest risks.

In East Asia, years of chronic air pollution are one reason why wearing face masks was common well before the coronavirus pandemic. Schoolchildren are used to playing inside on bad weather days. In the Korean language, bad air has a specific term of fine dust and its levels are displayed in real time in places such as train stations, bus stops and elevators.

I know fine dust is a problem and I don’t think twice about it anymore, said Lee Hyung-ko, a college student in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. It’s not going away anytime soon, so we just have to live with it.

Air pollution can also weigh heavily on politics. In South Korea, would-be presidents have made reducing air pollution part of their electoral platforms. In China, the smog over Beijing and other cities has over the years been seen as a failure of leadership. And the smoke that occasionally wafts from forest and peat fires in Indonesia to other parts of Southeast Asia tends to infuriate neighboring governments.

Sometimes political pressure on bad air leads to tangible changes. Beginning in the late 1980s, when Mexico City came under international criticism for its bad air, the city and the neighboring state government took a variety of measures, such as limiting the number of days cars were allowed on the road each week and close an urban refinery. The reforms mostly worked: the city’s air improved markedly.

In other cases, urban air has improved because of something no one saw coming. In Bangkok, as in New Delhi and other cities, for example, the air in the city of 11 million people has improved markedly during the coronavirus pandemic, said Paiboon, the taxi driver, who has been driving a cab for 18 years.

Now it’s back to normal.

If you drive early in the morning on the highway, you can see that it’s all foggy, he said. It looks like fog, but it’s not. They are all dust particles.

#weeks #air #quality #United #States #glimpse #global #air #pollution

Biden Administration Announces Clean Hydrogen Goal to Reduce Global Warming Pollution by 10% by 2050 | CNN Politics

Biden Administration Announces Clean Hydrogen Goal to Reduce Global Warming Pollution by 10% by 2050 |  CNN Politics

Lauren Petracca/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Hydrogen tanks in a storage area at the Constellation Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station in Scriba, New York on May 9.


The Biden administration on Monday announced a goal of producing 50 million tons of clean hydrogen fuel by 2050, a roadmap that, if successful, will reduce about 10 percent of global warming pollution by 2050. same date.

For the United States to transition to clean energy, it will take technologies beyond wind and solar to power airplanes, generate electricity, and power industry. And the Biden administration is increasingly looking to hydrogen to meet demand, an energy source that burns without polluting and can be derived from water. But it could also be generated by the fossil fuels it seeks to replace.

Clean hydrogen is the Swiss army knife of zero-carbon technologies, US Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm told reporters on Monday. If we get it right, it can do just about anything.

Granholm and President Joe Biden’s top climate adviser Ali Zaidi said they would reveal the locations of several new hydrogen hubs across the country in September. The hubs would serve as pilot projects for a reinvented, hydrogen-powered economy that Zaidi says will fundamentally change the way we build things in America.

We believe it could decarbonise some of our hardest-to-kill sectors, such as heavy industry and transportation, Granholm said. It could also generate clean, distributable electricity and provide options for long-life energy storage.

But hydrogen has its critics, namely those concerned about a potential over-reliance on hydrogen derived from fossil fuels such as methane gas, versus hydrogen that can be created from water.

If hydrogen is made from fossil fuels, all it does is keep the fossil fuel industry going, it doesn’t help with the climate, said Mark Jacobson, program director for atmosphere and energy at Stanford University and hydrogen expert.

An upcoming academic study of which Jacobson is the lead author finds that the United States would need about 14 million tons of hydrogen annually by 2050 to meet its decarbonization goals for the steel, agriculture and heavy transport, while the government figure would translate into about 2 million tonnes per year.

I think it’s woefully inadequate for what we need, Jacobson said.

And while there is intense work underway on the technology, it still takes years before it is fully commercially viable.

When you create a whole new industry, which is really what this clean hydrogen economy is going to be, you have to do everything everywhere and at once, Granholm said.

The electricity sector is already seeing a shift to renewable energies such as solar and wind, which are steadily replacing fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas. But solar and wind power won’t be useful for larger, more polluting vehicles and industries where batteries aren’t an option.

This is where hydrogen has the greatest potential.

Airplanes, for example, require so much energy that any battery used to store solar or wind electricity would likely be too large and heavy. Hydrogen, on the other hand, can come in liquid form and is much lighter.

Hydrogen also has the potential to help decarbonise heavy industry, which can be difficult to fuel with wind and solar energy.

It is part of the Biden administration’s overall strategy to decarbonize the energy sector which holds the key to then decarbonizing transportation due to the rise of electric cars. Renewable energies such as wind and solar have an important role to play in carbon neutral energy, but since sunlight and wind are intermittent, there is a race to find an electricity source that can be easily activated. at the flick of a switch.

Hydrogen is one of the technologies that could help. The Environmental Protection Agency is considering it in its proposed rule to reduce emissions from power plants, suggesting that natural gas plants could co-fire with clean hydrogen.

Clean hydrogen is a tricky term because hydrogen can be derived from a variety of sources, some cleaner than others.

Green hydrogen, the cleanest form, comes from water electrolysis which drives an electric current through the water to separate molecules which can then be used as fuel. However, green hydrogen is only truly carbon neutral if the electricity it is created with comes from renewable sources.

Gray hydrogen is commonly used today and is derived from fossil fuels, including methane gas, and contributes to emissions that warm the planet.

Blue hydrogen is also derived from fossil fuels such as methane gas, but unlike gray hydrogen, its emissions are captured making it a potentially cleaner fuel source. But Jacobson said capturing hydrogen emissions can be expensive waste; blue hydrogen must capture both hydrogen and carbon dioxide emissions, and carbon capture does not also include methane emissions from upstream gas operations.

The gray and blue hydrogen has drawn concern from environmental groups for their ties to fossil fuels. And even green hydrogen has some detractors who fear that using wind and solar energy to fuel hydrogen isn’t the best use of renewable energy.

However, Biden administration officials have made it clear that they see the technology as one with enormous potential to reduce emissions and create new jobs.

Zaidi on Monday spoke of a factory in Minnesota that used to make diesel engines but now makes electrolyzers to produce hydrogen. And Granholm has estimated that clean hydrogen will create about 100,000 jobs by the end of the decade.

This is a huge opportunity, Granholm said.

#Biden #Administration #Announces #Clean #Hydrogen #Goal #Reduce #Global #Warming #Pollution #CNN #Politics

World Environment Day brings solutions to plastic pollution into focus

World Environment Day brings solutions to plastic pollution into focus

Abidjan, June 5, 2023 – Individuals, communities, civil society, businesses and governments around the world today celebrated World Environment Day with a focus on solutions to plastic pollution, with official celebrations held in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, with the support from the Netherlands. The focus on solutions to plastic pollution this World Environment Day is especially timely, following the recent conclusion of a second round of negotiations on a global deal to end plastic pollution in France.

2023 marks the 50th anniversary of World Environment Day, after it was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1972. Over the past fifty years, with the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) at the helm , the day has become one of the largest global platforms for environmental awareness. Tens of millions of people participate online and through in-person activities, events and actions around the world.

Plastic is produced from fossil fuels, the more plastic we produce, the more fossil fuels we burn and the worse the climate crisis will be. But we have solutions, said UN Secretary-General Antnio Guterres in his message for World Environment Day. We must work as one between governments, businesses and consumers to break our addiction to plastic, advocate for zero waste and build a truly circular economy.

Speaking at the official event at Espace Latrille Events Deux Plateaux in Abidjan, Jean-Luc Assi, Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development of Côte d’Ivoire, said: In 2013 Côte d’Ivoire issued a decree banning the production, import and use of plastic bags. It has supported companies in the transition to reusable and biodegradable packaging. The country’s largest city, Abidjan, has also become a hub for start-ups looking to beat plastic pollution. They are encouraged. So we are all aware of the need to fight plastic pollution. Let’s act now and say stop to plastic pollution.

World Environment Day helps highlight the urgent challenges we face today. Challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution. Plastic pollution touches all three of these challenges, noted Vivianne Heijnen, Dutch environment minister. It is crucial that we continue to raise awareness, collect best practices and ensure the engagement of all stakeholders. I hope this edition of World Environment Day proves to be a landmark in our collective fight to end plastic pollution.

Humanity produces over 430 million tonnes of plastic each year, two-thirds of which are short-lived products that soon become waste. While the social and economic costs of plastic pollution range from 300 to 600 billion dollars annually.

According to a recent UNEP report, Turning off the Tap, plastic pollution could be reduced by 80% by 2040 if countries and companies make profound market and policy changes using existing technologies.

For the sake of the health of the planet, for the sake of our health, for the sake of our prosperity, we must end plastic pollution. This will require nothing less than a complete re-engineering of how we produce, use, recover and dispose of plastics and plastic-containing products, said Inger Andersen, executive director of (UNEP). The way the world produces, consumes and disposes of plastic has created a disaster. But it’s one we can wrap up by turning off the faucet on plastic pollution. On World Environment Day, I invite everyone to join the global movement. And help us end plastic pollution, once and for all.

At the second session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) on Plastic Pollution in Paris, France, the INC chairman was mandated to prepare a zero draft of a legally binding international agreement on plastic pollution, including in the ‘Marine environment.

In February 2022, at the fifth session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA-5.2), a landmark resolution (5/14) was adopted to develop a legally binding international instrument on plastic pollution, including in the marine environment, with the ambition to complete the negotiations by the end of 2024. The instrument must be based on a comprehensive approach addressing the whole life cycle of plastics. The third session of the INC will take place in Nairobi, Kenya in November 2023.

Action against plastic pollution

Across the globe, ahead of and on World Environment Day, the momentum for global action is evident. This World Environment Day map showcases innovative, community-led solutions to reduce plastic pollution. Hundreds of activities have been recorded, from beach cleaning in Mumbai to cloth bag sewing workshops in Ghana and zero plastic waste live concerts in Atlanta.

The International Air Travel Agency and UNEP have announced a memorandum of understanding, in line with the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, to address sustainability challenges in the aviation sector. Reducing problematic single-use plastic products and improving circularity in the use of plastics by the aviation industry is the initial goal of the partnership.

At a World Environment Day event at the International Public Transport Association’s (UITP) Global Public Transport Summit, in Barcelona, ​​Spain, UNEP and UITP presented a Memorandum of Understanding to formalize their partnership, with a strong focus on raising awareness of the environment and sustainability across public transport networks.

With the support of UNEP, Jyrgalan, a village in the Kyrgyz Republic, recently opened its first waste collection facility; The facility aims to address the growing village waste challenges caused by increased tourism, through capacity building for small businesses and strengthening the role of women in decision-making.

In Panama, under the leadership of UNEP representatives of the Panamanian government, UN regional and country offices and civil society, including youth organizations, have committed to reducing plastic waste both in their offices and in their community.

In Greece, thanks to the formation of the non-profit organization Enaleia, fishermen in 42 ports have stopped littering and instead recover marine plastic with their nets. which will now start working in Egypt and Spain and will increase its activity in Kenya and Italy.

The Kenya Plastics Pact has released new industry guidelines on the recyclability of plastic packaging. The guidelines aim to provide clear recommendations to decision makers on how to design plastic packaging compatible with future mechanical recycling infrastructure.

In New York, at the World Trade Center, an art project made entirely from plastic waste will be launched. In India, screen stars and well-known musicians have teamed up to create a music video and share messages to encourage more people to take action against plastic pollution. In Kazakhstan, local band Great Steppe released a music video to celebrate the Day and highlight the environmental damage the Aral Sea is suffering, while a United Nations-supported sustainable art and fashion event in Almaty showcased pieces made with recycled materials.

Airports and transport networks around the world, from China and Indonesia to Chile and the United States, as well as billboards in Times Square and Piccadilly Circus broadcast World Environment Day messages, raising awareness for millions of passengers and citizens on the importance of taking action to curb the threat of plastic pollution.

Hundreds of thousands of people attended World Environment Day online, with the hashtags #WorldEnvironmentDay and #BeatPlasticPollution at number one and two on Twitter, respectively. More than 50,000 people have downloaded UNEP’s practical guide to ending plastic pollution.

Taking place in community centres, schools, businesses and homes, these events, actions and exhibitions illustrate how individuals and communities are important drivers of environmental action. They can spur governments, cities, financial institutions and industries to use their ability to invest and implement solutions at scale to overcome and reverse the plastic pollution crisis.


About World Environment Day

World Environment Day, June 5, is one of the biggest international days for the environment. Led by UNEP and held annually since 1973, the event has grown to become the largest global platform for environmental awareness, with millions of people from around the world committed to protecting the planet.

About the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

UNEP is the leading global voice on the environment. It provides leadership and encourages collaboration in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.

For more information, please contact:

News and Media United of the United Nations Environment Programme

#World #Environment #Day #brings #solutions #plastic #pollution #focus

Blue Awakening as Latin American and Caribbean states say no to plastic

sea ​​life

From the remote Galpagos Islands to the humid depths of the Amazon, governments are cutting back on plastic, citizens are cleaning up the beaches, and innovators are looking for alternative products as part of a regional-wide movement to reverse the trend in plastic pollution.

Awareness of the need for action is growing in a region particularly vulnerable to marine litter and other environmental threats caused by climate change, such as increasingly powerful storms. In 2020, 3.7 million tons of plastic pollution entered the ocean from countries in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LAC).

Currently, 27 of the 33 countries in the LAC region have passed national or local laws to reduce, ban or eliminate single-use plastics. Yet much more needs to be done. Plastics account for about 10-12 percent of municipal solid waste and waste recycling and recovery rates they are typically less than 10 per cent in the countries of the regions.

So what are the countries in the region doing to tackle plastic pollution?

Antigua and Barbuda
In 2016 Antigua and Barbuda it became the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to ban plastic bags.


In 2019 Argentina passed a resolution that established national guidelines to address the problem of plastics and its impact on water bodies and the environment with a life cycle approach covering aspects of production, use , waste management and pollution reduction. A law was passed in 2020 banning the manufacture, import and marketing of cosmetic and personal care products that contain intentionally added plastic microbeads for exfoliation, including lotions, makeup products, toothpaste, nail polish and soap, among other products.

sea ​​life

Belizerenowned for having the second largest barrier reef in the world, it pledged to ban single-use plastic items, such as cutlery, bags and straws, as well as Styrofoam by April 2019. The ban was eventually introduced in March 2022, although questions stay beyond its execution.

Brazil has had a national plan to combat litter at sea since 2019, which however has not yet been implemented. Two waste-related decrees were published earlier this year, one re-establishing a Waste Collectors Support Program and another reorganizing the system of reverse logistics and recycling credits. While Brazil does not yet have a nationwide ban, some key governments, such as the state of Rio de Janeiro and the city of São Paulo, are taking action and have adopted local bans on bags, straws and other single-use plastics. products. The city of São Paulo is also a signatory to the New Plastics Economy Global Commitment.


The country was the first in South America to ban the use of plastic bags in 2018. The single-use plastic law went into effect in 2021, regulating the use of single-use plastics in food establishments, which are prohibited from handing out straws , stirrers or wands.


The National Plan for the Sustainable Management of Single-Use Plastics aims to ensure that 100% of single-use plastics placed on the market are reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2030. In 2022, the country passed a bill to ban 14 types of plastics , including plastic bags, straws and fruit and vegetable packaging.

Costa Rica

Costa Rica introduced its National Marine Litter Plan 2021-2030 in 2021, which aims to reduce land-based waste streams reaching the sea, including plastics, in partnership with organizations and communities.

coral reefs

Ecuadoris turning the Galpagos Islands into a plastic-free archipelago and in 2018 phased out plastic bags, straws, polyethylene take-out containers and bottles.

The country uses bio-fences made from reclaimed plastic debris to collect plastic waste from rivers, enabling communities to collect and recycle it. The fences extend across the river and prevent plastic pollution from flowing into the sea. Honduras, the Dominican Republic and Panama have also introduced biofences.

#Blue #Awakening #Latin #American #Caribbean #states #plastic